I have found the same issue. All i have done is renamed an existing field and published but Sitecore is not updating the web database with new field name.This means some item/rendering parameter fields are not updating on publish.
I have raised a support ticket and her is the response from sitecore support:
The behavior you have reported is a known issue in 8.2 rev. 170407 (Update-3). It is fixed in Sitecore XP 8.2 Update-4.
Be aware that the hotfix was built specifically for 8.2 rev. 170407 (Update-3), and you should not install it on other Sitecore versions or in combination with other hotfixes, unless explicitly instructed by Sitecore Support.
Note that you need to extract ZIP file contents to locate installation instructions and related files inside it.
To find detailed information about the hotfix and monitor changes of the related issue use the reference number 161148.
More information about public reference numbers can be found here:
Please contact Sitecore support to get hotfix for this issue.